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What is a code page?

The code page is another name for character encoding. Most of the new software is able to read UTF-8 (Unicode) encoding standard. Nevertheless, some older software may require specific code page for proper work, like for example Windows-1250 for polish language.

ISO/IEC 8859

ISO 8859-1 : Latin-1 or Western European
ISO 8859-2 : Latin-1 or Eastern European
ISO 8859-3 : Latin-3 or South European
ISO 8859-4 : Latin-4 or North European
ISO 8859-5 : Latin/Cyrillic
ISO 8859-6 : Latin/Arabic
ISO 8859-7 : Latin/Greek
ISO 8859-8 : Latin/Hebrew
ISO 8859-9 : Latin-5 or Turkish
ISO 8859-10 : Latin-6 or Nordic languages
ISO 8859-13 : Latin-7 or Baltic Rim
ISO 8859-15 : Latin-9 or Western European (include additional characters)

ISO 2022-JP : Japanese
ISO 2022-JP-2 : Japanese
ISO 2022-KR : Korean

IBM PC

IBM037 : Latin-1 character set used in IBM mainframes 
IBM273 : Germany, Austria
IBM277 : Denmark
IBM278 : Sweden
IBM280 : Italy
IBM284 : Spain
IBM285 : UK, Ireland
IBM297 : France
IBM420 : Arabic
IBM423 : Greek
IBM424 : Hebrew
IBM437 : The original IBM PC code page
IBM500 : Latin 1
IBM775 : Estonian, Lithuanian and Latvian
IBM850 : "Multilingual (Latin-1)" (Western European languages)
IBM852 : "Slavic (Latin-2)" (Central and Eastern European languages)
IBM855 : Cyrillic
IBM857 : Turkish
IBM860 : Portuguese
IBM861 : Icelandic
IBM863 : French (Quebec French)
IBM864 : Arabic
IBM865 : Danish/Norwegian
IBM869 : Greek
IBM870 : Latin 2
IBM871 : Iceland
IBM880 : Cyrillic Russian
IBM905 : Turkish
IBM1026 : Turkey

MS-DOS

CP 866 : Cyrillic
CP 875 : Greek
CP 1025 : Cyrillic

WINDOWS

windows-1250 : Central and East European Latin
windows-1251 : Cyrillic
windows-1252 : West European Latin
windows-1253 : Greek
windows-1254 : Turkish
windows-1255 : Hebrew
windows-1256 : Arabic
windows-1257 : Baltic
windows-1258 : Vietnamese
windows-874 : Thai

KOI

KOI8-R : Russian,
KOI8-U : Ukrainian

Extended Unix Code (EUC)

EUC-CN : simplified Chinese characters 
EUC-JP : Japanese character set standards
EUC-KR : Korean text

Unicode / ISO/IEC 10646

UTF-7
UTF-8
UTF-16
UTF-32
UTF-32BE

Early telecommunications

US-ASCI : English alphabet

Other

Johab : Korean
Macintosh
CSISO2022JP : Japanese
Arabic
Shift_JIS : Japanese 
ASMO 708 : Arabic
GB 18030 : Simplified Chinese
GB 2312 : Chinese
BIG 5 : Chinese character encoding

More information on :

http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/windows/desktop/dd317756(v=vs.85).aspx